The Ties between the University of Pennsylvania and the Brazilian Architecture, through the Career of George Henry Krug

Fernando Atique [1]

ATIQUE, Fernando. The Ties between the University of Pennsylvania and the Brazilian Architecture, through the Career of George Henry Krug. 19&20, Rio de Janeiro, v. IV, issue 1, jan. 2009. Acessible in: <>. [Português]

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1.       Perhaps, in the Brazilian society, there is not an American university so paradoxal like the University of Pennsylvania, also known, simply by its acronym Penn. Although sheltering, until today, more than 200 Brazilian students[2], it is relegated to secondary levels when the intention is to talk about the American academic scenery, even being Penn one of the most prestigious educational institutions in the world. In the architectural field, to find references about Penn is not one easy task, because the data about this institution appear just in obituaries of architects or in some footnotes of few academic articles, but never in a specific product able to reveal the actors and the relations that linked Penn to Brazil. Because of those aspects this article intents to be one contribution to illuminate this blurred relationship.[3] In fact, this paper is a sistematization of some results of a doctoral dissertation presented to the College of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of São Paulo (FAUUSP), in 2007. The main topic of this article is the analyzis of the career of one alumnus of the University of Pennsylvania, called George Henry Krug [Figure 1]: born in Brazil, trained in the United States, and a famous worker in his homeland.

2.       The focus is to present the contribution of this man to the construction of institutions and the profession of architect in Brazil. One special aspect of this paper is to delineate the importance of American references in those proccesses. More than to demolish one historiographical weft in which we can see the importance of the European presence, the main aspect of this paper is to show the niches where the American references could raise in Brazil. In general words, the text sustain the thesis that the profession of modern architect in Brazil was produced by the conjugation of references between Europe, the American continent and, in special, the United States, attesting the richness of the knowledge and its non-geographical character. This aspect, per si, reveals one important characteristic of the XIX century: the circulation of social actors and the ideas to the construction of a Modern profession and a Modern city.

The University of Pennsylvania and the Architectural Education in the end of the XIX Century

3.       Before discussing the George Henry Krug career, it is important to analyzise his educational background in the field of Architectre. As consequence, we have to look to the United States for a moment. The University of Pennsylvania occupies, since 1876, when the first Brazilian enrolled there[4], an important place in the education of a Brazilian elite. Better known, in Brazil, in three areas of knowledge (Medicine, Business and Odontology)[5], the Penn legacy was also important in areas as Engineering and Architecture.

4.       The origin of this prestigious American university is the Academy and Charitable School of Philadelphia, founded in 1740, by Benjamin Franklin. For some historians, Penn is the first American university constituted without interference or action of the Great Britain (THOMAS; BROWNLEE, 2000, p.23-26). When the young Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston, arrived in Philadelphia, in 1723, the city was flourishing, in special because of its port, one important place in the colonies in North America. Although important and dynamical in its economical activities, the Education at Philadelphia was not so disseminated, as observed by the historians George Thomas and David Brownlee in the book Building Americas First University: an historical and architectural guide for the University of Pennsylvania.  For these authors, the ascendance of the Quakers in the foundation of the city, by the action of William Penn, made a detachment between the religious life and the constitution of schools, usually seen in the other English colonies in America. This affirmation is sustained because the Quakers do not need the temples or seminaries for the propagation of their credo[6]. As consequence, religious or public schools were not built in Philadelphia until 1740, when Benjamin Franklin founded the Charitable School and potentialized the ways of acquiring formal education in Philadelphia (THOMAS; BROWNLEE, 2000, p.23-26). In 1749, Benjamin Franklin published a pamphlet named Proposals for the Education of Youth in Pensilvania [sic], considered by the American historians, the fisrt public declaration of the necessity of formal educational for all people in the “New World”. David Brownlee and George Thomas pointed out that the document, itself, and the Academy and Charitable School of Philadelphia were the origin of the University of Pennsylvania (THOMAS; BROWNLEE, 2000, p. XI).

5.       During many years, the University of Pennsylvania was located at the ancient part of the village; know as “Old City”. There, it was not so expressive in terms of students or buildings, but the methods of education were famous. Until 1870 it was the reality of Old Penn. But in that year occurred a challenge: the University moved-in to the west part of Philadelphia, just across the Schuylkill River, in a campus specially constructed to the development of the institution. There, the university could grow in number of students and of courses offered to the public (THOMAS; BROWNLEE, 2000: 54-55). In the decade of 1880, Penn opened new Departments, such as, Philosophy, Architecture, Archaelogy and Paleontoly, and started the Training School for Nurses, the Graduate Department to Women, the Laboratory of Hygiene, the Hospital for Dogs, the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology and other betterments (THE RECORD OF THE CLASS OF 1901, p.87).

6.       The Penn’s educational expansion was followed by the construction of many buildings, like the Library of the university, designed by the architect Frank Furness, in Queen Anne Style; and the buildings of the Museum, the Dental Hall, and the Law School etc. It is important to say something, in special, about the Logan Hall and the College Hall buildings [Figure 2], designed and constructed by Thomas Webb Richards, the fisrt “Professor of Drawing and Architecture”at Penn (ARCHITECTURAL ALUMNI SOCIETY, 1934, p.12).

7.       In fact, the education on Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania started in 1873 by the action of Thomas Webb Richards. This professor taught at Penn following a peculiar modus operandi, as observed by Edwin Bateman Morris, Penn’s alumnus and retired professor: “Mr Richard all in all, appears to have been a person of considerable zeal and devotion to the cause of Architecture, instilling into his pupils an understanding of the principles of design as he understood them” (MORRIS, 1934, p. 12). At this time, the instructions on Architecture were offered into the College, and “occurred  during the last two years of a four year course, the fisrt two being devoted to academic studies - a sort of here’s-a-chance-to-change-your-mind period”(MORRIS, 1934, p.12). Without specific spaces to the architectural classes, the lessons were ministrated inside the building know as College Hall, adapted for it. This building, as seen, was dsigned by Richards. As decorrency of this conncetion, the Richard’s buildings at the Penn West Campus were pointed out as good exemplars of Architecture. Being the College Hall and the Logan Hall buildings designed inside the aesthetic and the rules of the newgothic architecture, we can suppose that the historicism and the eclecticism were adopted as common solutions for the academic jobs.

8.       The School of Architecture, as an autonomous institution of the College was inaugurated only in October 7th of 1890, under the direction of Theophilus P. Chandler, a local architect. In 1901, the maganize The Architectural Record produced an inquiry about the American Schools of Architecture and dedicated to Penn an extensive article. In this article, the journalist Percy C. Stuart wrote about the origins of the Penn’s Architectural School, presenting a new narrative about it, in which Thomas Richard was not presented as the founder of the instructions on Architect there. In any case, some publications, printed by the own University of Pennsylvania present Richards as the first Architect actuating there. In addition, in the Architectural Archives documentation about this first period is so hard to be found. Whatever, we can affirm, by the juxtaposition of many sources that the beginning of the instructions on Architecture at Penn had started in the decade of 1870, and the number of graduate people was so small until the end of the 1890’s. We could realize, too, that the people interested in the Architectural career could enroll to the course just proving their sufficiency in the lessons ministrated during the two first years of the College. It was a benefit, because being approved the candidate could reduce the time of their graduation from four to two years.

9.       About the methods of teaching, we could discover that the Britain Architectural was a model to the lessons as well the buildings of the campus. Being the Old Philadelphia a place constructed with brick masonry, we could see that this technology was taught to the students as an adequated solution (FOUNDATION FOR ARCHITECTURE, 1994, p.14).

10.    The fact is that only in the 1890 the Penn School of Architecture was officially founded. After this, the School had two ways of being in contact with the career: by the bachelor degree, obtained after attending the four years course, or by a short-term course, named Special Course in Architecture. This last option just proved the certification of the students, not their degree as architects. To be enrolled to this Special Course in Architecture, the candidate had to prove their experience with the praxis of the Architectural field (as draughtsman or builder, for example). The expected public for this short-term course should was, also, candidates that had attended a course in other schools around the world. If the student of the Special Course wished, he could continue his studies in complementary courses, as the Interior Architecture. For this compliment the student received another diploma after two years (UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, CATALOGUE AND ANNOUNCEMENTS, 1893-94, p.158). This information extracted of the announcements published by Penn, suggest that the short-term courses ever occurred at this university.

11.    Those options of degrees into the School of Architecture of the University of Pennsylvania must be seen as ways of economical maintence of the institution. Being a private institution with a fixed amount of dollars repassed by the State, the University was dependent of the payment of tuitions and fees from its students. In the other hand, we can affirm that the variety of titles and courses maintened by Penn could guarantee the improvement of the labor in the United States, a country that experimented great economical and industrial development in the XIX century. As another consequence, those courses, in special the short-term models, attracted students over the world, in special, Brazilians that could saw a way to save money, but to conserve the status of an American Diploma. In the Architectural scenery, we can affirm, the Special Course was the most attractive for Brazilians. 

12.    The School of Architecture was reformulated many times during its existence. Maybe, the most famous and impressive changing had occurred in the fisrt decade of the XX century, when the French architect Paul Philippe Cret was hired. Paul Cret was a former student of the École Nationale de Beaux-Arts de Lyon, France, graduated on 1901. In that same year he won the Grand-Prix de Paris, one of the most important prizes in Europe, in the architectural field. The employment of Paul Cret changed many things at the School of Architecture, in special, because allowed Penn to start a Frenchsizing process verified in other American uiversities in the same period (GROSSMAN, 1996, p.XV).

13.    With Cret, the Architectural education could be closer to the Écoles de Beaux Arts, even if kepting the orginal American model of teaching based on the pragmatism and the technicism.

14.    The second important transformation occurred in the School of Architecture was the change of its name. In 1920 it was changed from School of Architecture to School of Fine Arts. More than an irrelevant changing, this alteration could certify the intention to be closer of the École de Beaux Arts. Nevertheless it is important to say that the new name could not transform the specific way of education at this school. The architect at Penn, as well at other American schools of Architecture, was divided into three: the Architect, the Urban Designer and the Landscape Architect (KOYL, 1934, p.10). 

15.    The architect Lucio Costa, when interviewed by Hugo Segawa, in the 1980’s, pointed out that the difference between the Écoles de Beaux Arts and the Fine Arts Schools must be in the mind of the historians. For him, the École de Beaux Arts intents to produce a global education on arts, instilling the discovering about Great Arts and Minor Arts, in special. In the other hand, the Fine Arts Schools focused just “the most fine arts”, showing a kind of selection and the incorporation of the American pragmatical way of action in the Architectural education. By this differentiation, we can say that Penn, even having Paul Cret inside his faculty, was a typical American School of Architecture.

16.    After this brief analyzis of the Architectural instructions at University of Pennsylvania, we can present the specific considerations about its fisrt Brazilian Alumnus: George Henry Krug. 

George Henry Krug: A professional with a blurred trajectory in the historiography

17.    Known in Brazil of the XIX century as Architect and Professor of the most important educational institutions of that period, George Henry Krug is an enigma for the Architectural historiography today. Sparse references to his biography and work have widespread assumptions as historically verifiable facts, damaging the understanding of their role in the Brazilian Architectural scenery of his time.

18.    Perhaps the most significant example of ignorance about him is the confusion about his nationality. As point out the few studies that focused his career, he was born at Fresno, California.  However, in fact, he was born in the Sao Paulo state, as testified to his former student records filed in the University Archives and Record Center of the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia. Born in Campinas, an important city in the hinterland of São Paulo state, on December 03, 1860, George Henry Krug was son of Wilhelm Gustav Heinrich Krug, German, and of Amely Catherine Bailey Krug, American (UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, FOLDER G. KRUG). His father was a constructor and member of the Presbyterian Church in Campinas. Because of these two characteristics, Wilhelm was chosen as the responsible for the construction of the Colégio Internacional, in that city, an educational arm of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, since 1873.

19.    It is known that the family of George Henry Krug lived for some years in the United States, probably in the East Coast before moving-out to Campinas, Brazil, in the last quarter of the XIX century. In the beggining of the XX century, Wilhelm Krug and his family moved from Campinas to São Paulo City. The Krug family in the XIX century was known and important in Campinas, what, in part, can explains the destination of Amely and Wilhelm Krug, when they leaved the United States. By the crossing from various sources, we could see that the German Wilhelm Krug, himself, emigrated from Germany to the United States, where he took the name William, and married Amely Bailey, coming after marriage, to Brazil, as a result of the War of Secession, like many other American immigrants. By one list about the American families that came to Brazil, between 1865 and 1885, prepared by Betty Antunes de Oliveira, we could found the Record of William Krug. Already in Brazil, the couple had George Henry Krug and Arthur Gillum Krug and, later, in 1889, in Taubaté, Bernard McDowell Krug, the youngest son of the couple (UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, THE MEDICAL SCOPE, 1914).  

20.    In the documents found in the United States, mainly in the files relating to Alumni of Penn, we could not get much information about the career of George Krug by the fact that, very rarely, he responded to surveys sent to former students of the institution. However, something very important was the discovery that the three Krug men studied at Penn. The first, according to records found there, was George, who joined the College in 1883, as Special Student in Architecture, turning off in 1885 (UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, FOLDER KRUG). Between 1884 and 1885, it was the turn of Arthur Krug to be enrolled in the course of Civil Engineering (UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, FOLDER A. KRUG), and in 1914, Bernard McDowell Krug was graduated in Medicine (UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, THE MEDICAL SCOPE, 1914).

21.    By the presence of the three Krug brothers at the University of Pennsylvania we can see that more than the retention of names like the mother’s land, the family kept the idea that the United States was a special country to get degrees. 

22.    It should be explained, however, that at the time that George Krug goes to Penn to study architecture, São Paulo City did not have any course to enable this practice. Even at the national scenery, only the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, in Rio de Janeiro, guarantee this training, but with little prestige (DURAND, 1989, p.98). The same happened with respect to his brother Arthur Gillum Krug, egress, in 1885, the Penn’s course of civil engineering. In São Paulo the degrees in civil engineering would be offered only in 1890 and 1896, respectively, in the Polytechnic School and the Mackenzie College, which at least partly explains the search for this career abroad.

23.    Even with respect to the dispatch of these brothers to the United States, apart from the question of being children of a North American with a German, this last one, first rooted in the United States, and then in Brazil, is the fact that his father was very close to the paulista elite, which led the couple to follow the same practice that this social class. The paulista elite had the custom to stimulate its children to be graduated in the United States, in special in Universities located in the East Coast, like Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, and Penn (ATIQUE, 2007). Knowing that Wilhelm Krug was the builder of the Colégio Internacional in Campinas, and thereafter lived in São Paulo, involving itself in the implementation of the Samaritan Hospital, both works Presbyterians, is likely to have enrolled their children in such a Protestant institutions.

24.    Although the life history of George Henry Krug is important to be examined is, however, their presence in the University of Pennsylvania that should be emphasized here. In 1883, when docked in Philadelphia to attend Penn, the course of architecture was taught in the College, under the responsibility of Professor Thomas Webb Richards. As explained, George Krug attended not the conventional graduation offered by this institution. He was enrolled in the Special Course, explained above. It is important to say that this choice maybe was forced by two circumstances: the first, in São Paulo there was not any Architectural course able to graduate architects, and, in second place, we suppose that George Krug was a kind of assistant of his father in the construction field, in Brazil. To be enrolled in the Special Course at the University of Pennsylvania, he was examined, taking into account its performance with his father, which ensured approval. However, definitive source on this hypothesis has not been found in their records as a student.

25.    The Special Course attended by Krug had graduate only seven students until 1883, the year he got his enrollment. In 1885, when he obtained the Certificate of Proficiency in Architecture, he was the only student there in this modality. Analyzing the oldest reference concerning to the establishment of "instruction in architecture," the catalog of 1872, it was possible to detect that Thomas Webb Richards taught “Drawing - Geometrical and Isometrical Drawing, and Drawing from the Flat. Free Hand Sketching”, for Freshman Year, and “Drawing - Perspective Drawing. Principles of Architecture. Shading in Indian Ink. Ornamental Drawing”, for Sophomore Year inside the regular program of the College. When the student started the specific career, as Civil Engineering, Richards taught “Drawing - Use of the Scale and Protractor. Water - colors. Graphical Representations from Geometry. Free Hand Sketching. Ornamentation”, for the Freshman Year, and “Drawing - Isometric and Linear Perspective. Graphical repreentations from Descriptive Geometry. Ornamental Drawing. Landscap”, for sophomores. The Junior and Senior Years of the Civil Engineering course had the classes: “Drawing - Topographical Drawing. Roofs. Bridges”, e “Drawing - Plans. Elevations. Sections.” The students also had “Descriptive Geometry - Problems, including the Point, Right Line, and Plane”, and Descriptive Geometry, based in “Pratical Problems. Shades, Shadowsm and Perspective”,Descriptive Geometry - Application to Ground Plans. Elevations and Sections” (UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, 1872:9-10,15-16).  

26.    In addition of these disciplines, all the students also receive compulsory instruction in Theoretical Mechanics, Heating, Sound, Lighting, in German Literature and Language, in English Literature, in Writing, History, Social Science, Electricity, Astronomy and Physical Geography (UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, 1872, p.16).

27.    In comparison with the Special Course in Architecture, offered by the School of Architecture, after 1890, we can realize that the program of study for certification of an architect in the early years at Penn, was not very different from what would be formalized with the creation of the School of Architecture, in 1890. Lack fell more on the contents of the history of architecture, which, possibly, were taught at school practices, when the reproduction of models in plaster, and the development of projects.

28.    With the finish of the two-year course, George Krug came back to Brazil,[7] not as you think, Bachelor of Architecture, but only Proficient in Architecture. This distinction was to the architecture in the United States, as well as the work of "practical in dentistry" was for the Brazilian dentists, until the 1960s. However, with the labor camp opened by his father in Brazil, Krug could work with him, first, in Campinas, and then, in São Paulo. During his career, sometimes he was called Architect, but also Engineer, what shows an ordinary misunderstanding of the Brazilian society about the professions. If the Engineer and the Architect were confounded in its professional tasks, a Proficient in Architecture was the same of a Bachelor in Architecture in São Paulo City, in the XIX century. 

29.    In São Paulo, father and son developed the project of the Evangelical Hospital, then, called Samaritan Hospital, inaugurated on January 25, 1894, in the current street Conselheiro Brotero, in Higienópolis neighborhood. This building had leaked its architecture within the compositional rules in use on the XIX century. We can affirm that this bulding was projected with part of the repertoire acquired by Krug in Penn: tripartite façade with clear lines of symmetry and well demarcated volumes, windows topped by frames and timpani. Also in the neighborhood of Higienópolis, according Maria Cecilia Naclerio Homem, the firm William Krug & Son built a cottage in "rustic style" to Iran. G. Baumgardner[8], at Higienópolis Avenue, 22. In addition, in the same neighborhood, they built two residences for Martin Burchard, at Higienópolis Avenue, 20, and at the Aracaju Street [Figure 3]. They built, too, the family house, in the same neighborhood (HOMEM, 1981, p.79 - 80, 82-83). It is known that the architectural production of George Krug was linked to the American programs and aesthetics, as the frequent use of the Queen Anne Style, can attest.

30.    Krug also worked for the architect Ramos de Azevedo, even before of the organization of the Technical Office Ramos de Azevedo, in 1907. Carlos Lemos says, in Ramos de Azevedo e seu Escritório, which since 1886 George Krug helped Ramos de Azevedo in developing their projects. This aid was a natural extension of the relationship that his uncle - Samuele Malfatti - and his father - Wilhelm Krug - already had with Ramos de Azevedo, from Campinas (LEMOS, 1993, p.54). Their affairs in the office have not been confirmed, but must have been the same as the others have did, as Victor Dubugras and Maximiliano Hehl: project development, producing of watercolors perspectives, monitoring the implementation of works in details etc.

31.    The researcher Heloisa Barbuy, searching the processes for construction, reform and expansion of buildings of the Historic Triangle of São Paulo, until 1914, realized some works made by the firm William Krug & Son, and as only by George Krug. Among them are the construction of the building for the Deutsche Bank in 1897, in Largo do Tesouro; the reform for the installation of another bank in na Rua do Tesouro, in 1899; the remodeling the façade of the building of the former number 45 of the Rua da Quitanda in 1909; the construction of a building in Largo da Misericordia, in 1910, the construction and changes in the old building located at the numbers, 22, 24 and 36 of the Rua da Quitanda, between 1911 and 1914 (BARBUY, 2006, p. 259 - 285).

32.    Sylvia Ficher reports, too, in his doctoral thesis, that in 1904, Krug and his father were selected and awarded the Silver Medal at the International Exposition of Saint Louis, USA. The project presented, according to this author, was a warehouse for the Engenho Victoria, owned by E. Johnston & Co., following the Queen Anne-style simplified, and built in San Carlos do Pinhal, today, the city of São Carlos, in São Paulo state (FICHER,, 1989, p.108).

33.    George Krug was, also, for some years, (1889-1902) Professor at the School of Engineering of Mackenzie College, where he taught classes in the Department of Architecture and Construction, function that he left after he entered to the Polytechnic School of São Paulo in 1904. The start of his career at Polytechnic School occurred by a public contest, solved by voting among members of the Congregation of the school, which earned victory over already established names such as Euclides da Cunha and Regino Aragon, among others. In this event was explicit the protection of Ramos de Azevedo about George Krug, as showed in the article written by José Carlos Barreto de Santana (SANTANA, 1996, p.322).

34.    Krug was substitute assistant professor of the 4th Section of Arts of the Polytechnic School of Sao Paulo, until 1906, when he was transformed in effective professor (FICHER, 1989). It is known that George Krug exercised the function of resident inspector for the State University of New York - USNY - in Mackenzie College, after they leave the faculty of engineering course in this school. What we want to illuminate, however, is that Krug’s presence as inspector was motivated by two circumstances: his proximity with the Presbyterianism and with the Mackenzie College leaders, and, in special, their condition of Alumnus of one American university (ATIQUE, 2007).

35.    However, in addition to their functions of teaching, Krug maintained the firm founded by his father until the death of his progenitor, 1907. Years later, around 1910, he was associated with his former colleague in the office Ramos de Azevedo, and then its designer, Antonio Garcia Moya, transforming the nomenclature of the office from William Krug & Son, for Krug, Moya & Co. In this period they experienced some increase in the number of works. This period included a major reform in Piracicabano School, in 1914. This school was founded by the American congreationalist missionary Martha Watts, in 1881. The main building of the School was made by Antonio de Matheus Haussler, in 1884 (Available in: Acessed on January 14th, 2007). The new façade was designed to show elements of the architecture of the period after the War of Secession, occurred in U.S., best known as Federal Style, and practiced in Brazil in the fisrt decades of the XX century (ATIQUE, 2007).

36.    From 1916, year that he assumed the effective position as Professor at Polytechinic School of São Paulo, Krug received the task of to be the responsible for the São Paulos Cathedral construction, since 1911 in charge of Maxiliano Hehl. Krug held this position until 1919, year of his death.

37.    For it seems, Krug never worked with his brother Arthur Krug, a civil engineer. The presence of Arthur Krug in his firm occurred, according to Sylvia Ficher, only after the death of the holder of the office, which became Krug, Moya & Malfatti, and then only Moya & Malfatti (FICHER, 1989, p.109).

38.    It is known that in 1920 Arthur Krug was one of the Directors of the American Chamber of Commerce in Sao Paulo (UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES, FOLDER AG KRUG). It seems that the involvement of his brother’s office must have occurred to settle outstanding works until to find successor to the architectural work.

39.    George Krug was uncle of Guilherme Malfatti - an architect graduated by the São Paulo School of Fine Arts, in 1933 - and of Anita Catarina Malfatti an important Brazilian Modern Painter. Krug was brother of the mother of the two guys, Mrs. Eleonora Elizabeth Krug Malfatti. She was born, probably, in Brazil, in unknown date and location. We know that Mackenzie College was chosen as the educational institute for the two children, and we can suppose that it occurred in function of the ties of George Krug with the Presbyterianism. Anita Malfatti was supported by his uncle George Krug after her father’s dead, the Italian constructor Samuele Malfatti. The attitude of patrons of George Krug led Anita Malfatti to study in Germany, in 1910, and, after, at the Independent School of Art in New York, between 1914 and 1916. Involved with the Modern Art, she displeased her uncle, but kept her envolviment with the modernist precepts. Guilherme Malfatti became, first, heir to the office of the uncle, and only then, chooses to be graduated in architecture.

40.    In the field of the professional regulamentation of the Architect in Brazil, Krug took part at the Society of Architects of São Paulo (Sociedade de Arquitetos de São Paulo), founded in 1911. He was, also, member of the Institute of Engineering (Instituto de Engenharia), organized in 1917, inside the Polytechnic School of São Paulo, as point professor Carlos Lemos (LEMOS, 1993, p.83).

41.    George Krug passed away in São Paulo City, in 1919.


42.    The trajectory of George Henry Krug shows the need to look at the history of the profession of architect in Brazil from other point of view. Character who played major role in the management of educational institutions, and in the design of important buildings, it is strange to note that his contribution to the development of the country has been minimized in manuals of Architectural history produced in the country.

43.    Connected to an ethnic group that is little explored in Brazilian history - the Anglo-Saxons - and part of a religious stronghold never investigated in their spatial arrangement - the historic Protestants - Krug shows that there are historiographical niches to be search.

44.    This paper, which is an excerpt from the doctoral thesis defended at the College of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of São Paulo (FAUUSP) tried to show the contribution of the University of Pennsylvania in the process of modernization in Brazil, seen as one that provided training in careers that the country yet, timidly, had. In a way, the survey started, here, by way of George Krug, fits in well with other professionals, which, strangely, were known even before the research done, in situ, in Penn. We hope that professionals as George Henry Krug can find places inside the books about the Brazilian Architecture; helping to reveal the multiplicity of options and ideals that made Brazil a differente country in the turn of the centuries.


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[1] Fernando Atique, is graduated on Architecture and Urbanism (1999) and holds a Master Degree on Architctural History (2002) by the Department of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of São Paulo. He is, also, Phd by the College of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of São Paulo (2007). Now, he is Professor and Coordinator of the undergraduate courses on Architeture and Urbanism at University São Francisco - Itatiba / SP. In 2006 he was a Visiting Scholar at University of Pennsylvania, in the US, searching professionals like George Henry Krug, discussed in this paper.

[2] Between 1876 and 1900 the number of Brazilian students at Penn was 43. They were enrolled in different courses there. Between 1901 and 1950, 65 students from Brazil could be counted. The total of Brazilians from 1876 to 1950 was 108 people (ATIQUE, 2006). After the 1950 until 1998, as point out the Alumni Directory (1998), the Brazilians at Penn could raise 200 people. Brazilians linked with the Architectural courses ministrated at Penn were 6 (ATIQUE, 2007).

[3] This article is product of the research made in situ, in the first semester of 2006, by the grant of the Brazilian Federal Agency named CAPES.

[4] The fisrt Brazilian alumnus of Penn was Bernardo de Souza Franco Harrah, born at Rio de Janeiro City. He enrolled the Law School in 1876.

[5] The Brazilian ties with Odontology, Business and Medicine were realized during the research in situ. More information can be find in my Doctoral Thesis. 

[6] The Quakers, until today, use specific spaces called The Quakers Meeting Houses for their monthly meeting.

[7] During his stay at Philadelphia, George Henry Krug enjoyed the fraternity Chi Phi, Nu Section.

[8] Ira Baumgarnder was a Penn’s alumnus too. In São Paulo City he was known as the “American Dentisty(ATIQUE, 2007).