Volume IV, issue 2april 2009...............................................................ISSN 1981-030X



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If it is possible to say, without being too simplifying, that the city of Rio de Janeiro was the main artistic centre in Brazil during all the Empire and the first decades of the Republic, that does not imply that other States and even other Fluminense cities had not knew, in this period, a meaningful cultural effervescence. That is what a great majority of the articles gathered for the present edition of 19&20 enables to see.
By one side, we can verify that, during the nineteenth century, several Court provinces have attracted foreign artists of prestige, as is demonstrated by the case of Nova Friburgo, where the French landscape gardener Auguste Glaziou had an important participation, analyzed in Camila Dias Amaduro´s article; or, still, the case of the city of Campos de Goytacazes, in which the German photographer Guilherme Bolckau was established, whose work is the focus of the reflection of Mônica Scarpat Zandonadi.
By the other side, several States has developed an artistic life independent from that of Rio de Janeiro´s. That is what it is testified by the trajectory in Brazil of another foreigner, the Norwegian Alfredo Andersen: as the text by Amélia Siegel Corrêa shows, Andersen, who arrived in Paraná in the year 1890, has fixed residence in cities like Paranaguá and Curitiba and there he accomplished the majority of his maturity works. Analogously, the Gaucho Pedro Weingärtner, whose Neo-Pompeian production is analyzed in the present number by Camila Dazzi, developed a very independent carrier from Rio de Janeiro´s artistic milieu, as well as Antonio Parreiras, who received from other States the majority of the commissions of his historical paintings, important pieces for the construction of an iconography for the Brazilian nation, studied by José Maurício Saldanha Álvarez in his article.
During the Republic, other artistic instances like the formation of collections and the art criticism also knew a growing evolution beyond the limits of the Federal Capital. Practices of patronage which were irreducible to those of Rio de Janeiro´s had lead to the constitution of collections with singular characteristics, as the collection of the present Mariano Procópio Museum, in Juiz de Fora-MG, where we can find Armando Vianna´s canvas, Cleaning metals, centre of the considerations of Maraliz de Castro Vieira Christo´s text. Yet the reviews and articles here transcribed from the Revista do Brasil [Brazil´s Magazine], an important periodical created in São Paulo in 1916, demonstrate not only the maturation of the art criticism in the State and the affirmation of several of its artists, but also point out to the leading role that the Paulista capital soon would assume in the Brazilian artistic scenario.
The present edition of 19&20 still brings an article by Ana Heloisa Molina that studies the stage curtain made by Eliseu Visconti, in the beginning of the twentieth century, for Rio de Janeiro´s Municipal Theatre, and ends up with the transcriptions made by Márcia Valéria Teixeira Rosa of important documents relating to Rodolpho Amoêdo, which belong to the collections of the National Museum of Fine Arts and the Dom João VI Museum, which cover the period from his formation as a painter until the end of his artistic carrier. 
                                                                                                                               Arthur Valle                                                                                                                               Camila Dazzi